According to a report released by the Government on January 13 said that the regions of Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are likely to witness an increase in high temperature over periods of 2030, 2050 and 2085.
The Forest Survey of India (FSI) in collaboration with the Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Pilani, Goa underwent a study based on ‘Mapping of Climate Change Hotspots in Indian Forests’.
The India State of Forests Report (ISFR) 2021, said that the collaborative study was carried out with the objective to map climatic hotspots over the forest cover in India, using computer model-based projection of temperature and rainfall data, for the future time periods i.e. year 2030, 2050 and 2085.
Report released by Union Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav:
The report released by Union Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav said, “By analysing scenarios in the study periods that is 2030, 2050, 2085, it has been observed that Ladakh, Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are projected to witness high temperature increase, while Andaman and Nicobar Islands, West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are projected to witness the least temperature rise over these periods.”
The report also said that the Northeastern region of India and Upper Malabar coast of India are more likely to experience highest increase in rainfall, whereas, part of north-eastern states like Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, north-western parts of the country namely Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are projected to experience least increase and sometimes even decline in rainfall.
The report reads, “Mapping of climatic hotspots over the forest cover in India using computer model-based projection of temperature and rainfall data has been carried out for three future time periods, i.e. year 2030, 2050 and 2085. The period 2030 represents a near-term timeline that coincides with the global short-term climate action horizon. Period 2050 represents the mid-term timeline and coincides with global long-term climate action goals. The period 2085 represents a long-term time horizon.”
Greenhouse gases responsible for the increase in temperature in the atmosphere:
However, study says that increase in levels of greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere is leading to a steady increase in mean global atmospheric temperatures.
Factors responsible for increase in greenhouse gases:
From 1990 to 2019, the total warming effect from greenhouse gases added by humans to the Earth’s atmosphere increased by 45 percent and this is due to the beginning of the industrial era. Almost all of this increase is attributable to human activities. Historical measurements show that the current global atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide are unprecedented compared with the past 800,000 years, even after accounting for natural fluctuations.
Below are some of the major factors related to the same:
Burning of Fossil Fuels: Fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas have become an integral part of our life. They are used on large basis to produce electricity and for transportation. When they are burnt, the carbon stored inside them is released which combines with oxygen in the air to create carbon dioxide. With the increase in the population, the number of vehicles have also increased and this has resulted in increase in the pollution in the atmosphere. When these vehicles run, they release carbon dioxide, which is one the main gas responsible for increase in greenhouse effect.
Deforestation: Forests hold a major green area on the planet Earth. Plants and trees intake carbon dioxide and release oxygen, through the process of photosynthesis, which is required by humans and animals to survive. Large scale development has resulted in cutting down of trees and forests which has forced people to look for alternate places for living. When the wood is burnt, the stored carbon in converted back into carbon dioxide.
Increase in Population: Over the last few decades, there have been huge increase in the population. Now, this has resulted in increased demand for food, cloth and shelter. New manufacturing hubs have come up cities and towns that release some harmful gases into the atmosphere which increases the greenhouse effect. Also, more people means more usage of fossil fuels which in turn has aggravated the problem.
Industrial Waste and Landfills: Industries which are involved in cement production, fertilizers, coal mining activities, oil extraction produce harmful greenhouse gases. Also, landfills filled with garbage produce carbon dioxide and methane gas contributing significantly to greenhouse effect.